Pronunciation key

The pronunciations shown are approximate, using southern British ('received pronunciation') as the reference point for the transcription. There are of course many local variations in pronunciation especially in Celtic-speaking areas, which I've had to ignore.
The main stressed syllable in a word is shown by underlining. In cases where the words are in everyday Modern English, as in Land's End, I show just the stress.
I only give pronunciations when they can’t be easily guessed from the spelling.


p as in pin
b as in big
t as in top
d as in dog
k as in kin
g as in got
f as in fat
v as in van
th as in thin
TH as in the
s as in sit
z as in zip
sh as in shop
zh as in fusion
ch as in chest
dg as in jest
h as in hot
m as in map
n as in net
ng as in sing
l as in lip
r as in rip
w as in well
j as in you

Short vowels

i as in it
e as in met
a as in cat
o as in not
u as in put
uh as in cup and also the

Long vowels

ee as in see
ah as in pal
oo as in soon
aw as in hall
er as in bird
eR as in bird, with R sounded


ay as in hay
iy as in my
oh as in low
oy as in boy
ow as in now
eer as in near
air as in air
oouh as in cure

Other symbols

æ: in Old English, as in the first part of air
y in Old English, a rounded vowel, as in French tu
kh in Old English, Welsh and Gaelic, as in Scots loch
gh in Gaelic, the voiced form of kh
uu in Gaelic, a high back unrounded vowel - like an oo with lips spread
hw in Old English, a voiceless w, as in whit
hr in Welsh, a voiceless r, as in rhos
hl in Welsh, a voiceless l, as in llan